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Electronic Discovery Glossary
An application by Adobe Corporation for creating, reading, and editing PDF files.
A file type whose purpose is to store compressed copies of other files. The ZIP file is a common type of archive file. Other types of archive files are:
ED Loader can import archive files and the files they contain either as multiple separate files or as a single-file archive. The files within the archive are called attachments.
Attachments are files that are linked to or embedded within other files. For example, word processor files are commonly found attached to e-mail messages. Within LAW, an attachment relationship is displayed by indenting attachments below its parent document or archive.
In LAW, these tools perform page and document numbering, image cleanup, endorsing images, OCR, printing, e-printing, scanning for suspected footers, TIFF/PDF conversion, and updating page data. Batch processing can be done using just a single computer, or by distributing the job among 2 or more networked computers by using the LAW Management Console.
The LAW tool you use from a grid display to update all currently visible records in a grid. For example, you could use the Batch Update tool to reassign all selected records to a different custodian. Before you can use the Batch Update tool, the field that you want to update must be unlocked for editing. See also Modify Fields. (Tools -> Batch Update)
Documents in litigation collections are assigned a unique sequential number on each page of every document. These numbers are referred to as Bates numbers (named after the Bates automatic numbering machine) and are used to identify a document or page. In Concordance Desktop, these numbers are often referred to as as BEGNO (beginning number) and ENDNO (ending number).
Use Boolean operators such as AND, NOT, OR, and XOR to include or exclude documents by comparing them against conditions. A search for milk OR coffee locates all documents that either contain the word “milk” or “coffee”.
In Concordance Desktop, this screen is used to view the current database record in the current query, or the first document in the database if there is no query.
1. In CloudNine™ LAW, the basic unit of organization for a set of source documents and source metadata; and the metadata and operational settings associated with that set of documents. 2. In CloudNine™ Explore, the basic unit of organization for identifying sets of source documents, applying filters, exporting, and other functions related to prefiltering. Cases in CloudNine™ Explore and LAW are managed and stored in separate databases.
Within LAW, a case name is the only property required when you create a database. LAW provides you with a default name of New Case, but we advise you use a more descriptive name. LAW uses the case name as the root directory of the case.
A Concordance Desktop Admin Console menu tree designation on the Management tab, depicted by a folder icon. Client folders are not required but can be used to organize data by a client, case name, or topic. Matters are then added to these client folders.
A document created in one application that contains information created in another application. For example, a Word document can contain a worksheet developed in Excel. When you import compound documents in LAW, you can specify whether a compound document will be extracted or not.
In Concordance Desktop you can concatenate (combine) one or more databases together so that they can be searched as one single database.
Concordance Desktop Viewer (CDV)
This is the near-native document viewer for Concordance Desktop.
Concordance Desktop Programming Language (CPL)
A proprietary programming language used to open, query, and modify databases for Concordance Desktop.
Context operators SAME, NOTSAME, and field limiters are used to locate records that include or exclude combinations of keywords within a specific paragraph field.
The party responsible for safe keeping of documents. In ED Loader, prior to importing, you can identify the custodian responsible for source documents. You can also access the Custodian Manager from ED Loader to manage the list of custodians available for a case. After import, the Custodian field is locked by default.
You can update the custodian after import. To do so, unlock the field for editing (Index -> Modify Fields), and then you can reassign the custodian manually by using the folder view or Index tab. Or you can use the Batch Update utility accessible from a grid view.
In CloudNine™ LAW, a data source is the collection of MS Word docs, Excel worksheets, Adobe .pdf files, winzip .zip files, or others, to be imported into a case.
A type of data structure in which information is organized in one or more tables. In LAW, each case is managed in its own database.
The software application used to organize, manage and query information stored in a database.
The LAW tool used for determining if there are multiple copies of the same document in a case.
A value that LAW uses to populate a field. For example, the default value for the name of a new case is ‘New Case.’ The default value for Case is Active is ‘Yes.”
A digital file that has a text qualifier, a delimiter, and a line separator to structure data uniformly.
A method of representing a table of information in a text file. In delimited text, the table columns are separated by a designated character, such as a comma or tab character.
Example: Order number,CustomerName
Typically a comma is used to separate values. A comma-separated value (CSV) file contains comma delimited text. One of the six kinds of source files you can import into a LAW case.
A person who testifies under oath, especially in writing.
The memorialized minutes of an interview between a member of the legal profession and a litigant or witness.
A file created when a database is indexed, which facilitates searching. A database dictionary file contains a list of all words, other than stopwords, that are found in a database. Each word in the dictionary displays with the total number of occurrences and the number of documents it appears in.
DocExt is the name for one of the fields in the LAW case database. It’s an abbreviation for ‘document extension.’ See Document and Document Extension.
A unique value that LAW assigns to each document in a case.
A unique eight-digit number that you can specify as the starting point for document numbering before importing source documents into the LAW case.
Used interchangeably with 'file'. A document is composed of one or more pages. With paper, this term refers to collections of pages. With electronic files, this term refers to a digital file. In Concordance Desktop, a document record is a record associated with a logical combination of pages. In LAW, each document has a unique ID created during import.
The suffix added to a filename that identifies the format of its contents. For example, the document extension of text files is TXT. During electronic discovery, LAW analyzes file contents and records the file extensions in the DocExt field. If a file’s contents do not match the extension, the SuspectExt field is checked. For documents with suspected extensions the OrigExt field is populated with the extension associated with the type of file, as inferred by CloudNine™ LAW.
One of the batch processes applied to the results of an import session. You can opt for numbering each page of every document, placing the number that LAW generates in the PageID field, and specifying the serial number to start counting from.
Document Review Software
A type of litigation support software that consumes the export product of CloudNine™ LAW.
In Concordance Desktop this screen is used to edit the contents of a the current database record, or to enter a new record into the document collection. Records viewed in Edit mode are retrieved from the last or current query.
Short of electronic document, in distinction to paper document. Any computer file identified as a source document in a case.
Electronic Data Discovery (EDD), Electronic Discovery, or E-Discovery
The process of finding information in electronic documents that is important to litigation.
A type of file that contains individual email messages.
Imprinting an image or PDF file, such as a logo on TIFFs. One of the batch processes applied to the results of an import session. You can opt for endorsing every image or PDF file or only the first page of every image or PDF file.
One of the batch processes that you can run on electronic documents. Prints the native document using application software external from CloudNine™ LAW.
One of the built-in fields that LAW adds to the project database, error messages tell you that LAW was either unable to extract data from a document, or write that data to the database.
Rules that prevent certain items from being processed in LAW.
Exploded Sort Report
A report where each entry in a multiple entry field is sorted in alphabetical order and given its own line in the report as if it were a separate record.
The process of packaging documents and metadata in formats suitable for use by software applications outside of CloudNine™ LAW.
Used for specifying what data will be exported to document review software. In the Export utility you specify: the documents to be exported, the data fields and values of interest, the export format, file name and path, and the naming scheme for exported files and folders.
Within LAW, one of the properties associated with a document or page. Examples include: document identification number (DocId), page identification number (PageID), document file extension (DocExt), etc. You use fields as a basis for filtering and analyzing documents. By default, LAW creates and populates many fields for documents and pages that it processes. You can lock or unlock fields, or create new fields for your own purposes by using the Modify Fields dialog box.
Field limiters are used to include or exclude field names, and are considered to be context operators. The use of a single period between the search term and the field name includes a field. The use of two periods between the search term and the field name excludes a field.
A tool in the grid display you use to control which fields are visible in the LAW grid. Checked items are visible, unchecked are not. All the properties associated with a document. For example the three fields in the screen shot tell you the date when a file was created, the date for the last time it was modified, and the date when it was last printed. All of these fields are populated by the operating system.
Information about a document stored in the FileDescription field in LAW.
A container for documents and pages.
Found in email, saved in the To field of the database within LAW so that you can search for all of the emails that were sent by an individual.
Words that are like homonyms, that look like and sound like a word contained in the database dictionary. This list is unique to each database and is built during indexing.
A type of display in LAW that enables you to view lists of document and page records each in a single row in a table. You can configure grids to show whichever metadata fields you are interested in. You can also define custom sorting and reuse saved views.
The embedded grid is built into the main window of LAW and is designed to provide a snapshot view, showing just a few records and fields at a time. There is also a standalone grid that runs in its own window and can be more useful for reviewing larger record sets and more fields.
A value assigned to a particular document that uniquely identifies it within LAW. Hash values for files are generated by the Deduplication utility to identify files suspected of being duplicates. There is a slight margin of error when creating file hashes and this factor decreases with the strength of the working digest used to create the hash. For most projects, configuring the Deduplication utility to use 128-bit strength is sufficient to positively identify duplicates. You can use a stronger digest for extremely high reliability but at a cost of processing efficiency.
A LAW batch process for adding headers and footers to the image of a page before exporting.
Keywords used to locate document records, returning the count of words hits located in the active query. Hits are highlighted in red (default color) in records displaying in Browse View.
One of the three options for viewing a document in CloudNine™ LAW. For example, the image tab contains a picture of the document. The image is like a Xerox copy of a document. You can read it, but you can’t change it.
A LAW batch process for deskewing images, removing black borders found in the original images, or and random black marks that are not part of the image.
A field attribute. Fields in Concordance Desktop are coded to link with files in Concordance Desktop Image, providing lookup information about where the associated image is located.
Concordance Desktop Viewer and Concordance Viewer are tools used to view images associated with a document record. Image files are stored in a separate imagebase (database).
Just as a collection of Concordance Desktop files defines a database, scanned image files are stored together to form an imagebase, which includes the names and locations of the image files.
When used as a verb, to index a database, this term refers to the process in which Concordance Desktop builds files that integrate with the program and that facilitate searches. When used as a noun, the database’s index, it refers to the files that are created. It’s also a field attribute. Fields that are designated as indexed fields have their contents scanned and added to the files that Concordance Desktop Creates to facilitate searches.
A term that describes a field whose purpose is to hold sequential numbering of documents or pages.
A tag that’s used to categorize a section of text within a document.
A graphic viewer application by Irfan Skiljan for imaging many supported file formats.
A field attribute. Key fields have their contents scanned and added to special key files that integrate with Concordance Desktop and that facilitate searches on the field.
Keywords in Context (KWIC)
A custom report option that makes otherwise lengthy reports more manageable and concise by displaying just those sections of indexed fields that contain selected keywords, used especially for transcripts and depositions.
One of the six kinds of source files you can import into a LAW case. LAW Case allow users to import an existing LAW case (created in version 4.x or 5.x) into a new or existing LAW case.
One of the six kinds of source files you can import into a LAW case. Load files are produced by litigation support applications for the purpose of packaging source files and other information for import and export to other programs.
A utility that provides access to LAW logs.
A type of file that acts as a container for individual e-mail messages. Outlook mail stores have the PST extension.
An Concordance Desktop Admin Console menu tree designation on the Management tab, depicted by a briefcase icon. Matters are used to organize databases by case or topic.
The use of a wildcard character to locate patterns of keywords.
A field attribute. Fields in Concordance Desktop are coded to link with files in Concordance Desktop viewer, providing lookup information about where the associated document or image is located.
Properties associated with a document that might or might not be contained within the body of the document, including the author, the creation date, and last modified date. Much metadata is collected in the process of electronic discovery during the import process. Metadata is useful as a basis for creating queries. Concordance Desktop also captures formatting metadata for font changes, bolding, underlining, and highlighting.
The LAW tool you use to add, delete, lock, or unlock the fields associated with a case. See also Batch Update.
A specific type of Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) image file in which many pages are combined into a single .tif file.
A set of rules you define that govern naming of various objects in CloudNine™ LAW, such as projects, cases, and folders. Creating a naming scheme helps to maintain organization over sources and cases.
The software used to activate, run, or otherwise view a digital file.
Blemishes, dust, creases and other imperfections in images that can reduce the accuracy and speed of OCR. If scanned images are known to contain fair amounts of noise, you can run a batch process to remove noise, before you run a batch process to OCR the images.
Words that are ignored by processes of text indexing and full text search. Examples of noise words include: are, the, and, but, in, etc.
In Concordance, this is a tag that’s deleted unless it’s applied to at least one database record, or at least one section of text in Browse View.
Subjective comments created by a reviewer and assigned to a selection of text within a document.
A LAW option for viewing files. Opens the native document using the source application of the document.
A reserved word or symbol that Concordance Desktop interprets to be part of search query syntax.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
An electronic process where the text in paper documents or digital files is extracted and prepared for eventual loading into a full-text information retrieval system.
One sentence or line of text from a previous paragraph that prints at the top of page due to document page breaks and setup options. Selecting print settings for widow/orphan controls indicates how many lines are printed when a paragraph or text content overlaps a page break in a document. Typically a minimum of two lines of text should be continued after a page break to keep paragraph or text content within context. See also: Widows.
In Concordance, the act of removing records or redlines from a database that have been marked for deletion. Packing a dictionary file removes references to textual units identified by indexing or reindexing that are no longer in the database, while optimizing the file structure for faster searches and reindexes.
A description of the location in the file system of a volume, file, or folder. For example, C:\Program Files\test.txt represents the path to a test file located in the Program Files folder on the C: drive.
A tag that exists between Concordance sessions, even if it hasn’t been applied to any database record, or any section of text in Browse View.
An optional action that can be performed on document sets prior to their import into a LAW case. This function is accomplished by the use of CloudNine™ Explore.
A LAW batch process for preparing documents for output to a printer.
A process where you “produce” a copy of your images based on a current Concordance Desktop query, which can be renamed and renumbered to fit your needs. Productions are often run for internal case review and to provide opposing counsel with records in preparation for trial.
The fields of a document. For example one of the properties of a computer file is its name. Other properties would include the name of its author, the date it was created, the application that was used to create it.
The proximity operators ADJ and NEAR are used to locate words within a specified distance from each other in the same field. These operators can use optional numerical arguments. The search Apples ADJ25 Oranges locates documents where “oranges” appears within 25 words of “apples”.
Q & A pair
Used in transcript or deposition, a coupling of a question posed to an individual, and his or her reply.
Quality Control (QC)
The process of ensuring that the results of one phase of discovery are complete, accurate, and usable by subsequent phases. After import, for example, QC may consist of reviewing and resolving errors and warnings. Prior to OCR, QC may consist of applying image cleanup batch processes to TIFFs.
A request for information from a database using parameters, field values, and language.
A LAW tool for finding documents and pages that match conditions you select based on field data and/or full text conditions. Query Builder can send results to be sent to a grid for further analysis or to a batch process, update utility, or direct to export.
A range file in LAW is a delimited text file with two fields, BegDoc# and EndDoc#. You can use a range file when you want to reorganize documents, validate document ranges, or to import images from a Doculex imagebase.
One of the six kinds of source files you can import into a LAW case, raw images are read-only image files without an accompanying database or a load file.
Individual objects in a full-text information retrieval system or single rows in a database. In Concordance Desktop this is primarily documents within a database. In a LAW case, a record holds all the properties and values associated with a particular document or page.
Directing processing to take place on all items in a folder and then all its subfolders. Recursive processing helps to ensure all items in a deep folder structure are processed.
A blocked section of text intended to prevent others from viewing sensitive information in a document.
Subjective text, notes, or symbols placed on a graphical image by a reviewer, which represent subjective information about the image.
A procedure that’s functionally similar to indexing. Reindexing updates the files created during a database’s initial indexing, and is required when data changes in a database through reviewer input, or when database records are added, imported or updated.
Relational operators, such as less than (LT) and greater than (GT), can be used to test data against specific values.
The top level folder in a directory structure.
An automated process that converts paper or electronic documents into a Concordance Desktop-ready format.
A job run in ED Loader.
The utility in ED Loader for reviewing the details of previously run jobs.
A unique name that LAW creates every time it’s importing files into the case. The LAW default value for a session label is "Session Created on [&Created]".
A feature of the ED Loader that provides access to logs of previous import sessions.
A specific type of Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) image file in which many individual pages are separated into individual files. For example, a 40-page document could be represented as 40 individual .tif files.
A snapshot is a point-in-time image of your query session, providing a static picture of a database that includes all concatenated databases, all searches, the current record, and the current sort in effect.
A file or folder identified for processing by LAW.
The folder or file name associated with an item bound for import in LAW.
In ED Loader, a control that shows a list of items bound for processing. When you use ED Loader, you must specify items to import based on source type, for example, Outlook folder, files, file lists, etc. You can identify multiple items to import before you press the Start button. When you select an item for processing it is added to the Source Queue list.
A LAW field that names the application that originally produced a document.
The files that LAW imports into a case.
To damage or ruin the original native document files by covering or cutting content.
Words that are so common that they are of no value in the intent of a search, such as and, for, and the. The more stopwords included in a list increases the indexing process and speeds data retrieval.
In the Concordance Desktop Admin Console, synchronization contacts all registered databases and updates any user changes.
A screen in Concordance Desktop that’s used to view several database records in a tabular format, similar to a spreadsheet, displaying one line per record.
A descriptive marker in Concordance Desktop that can be used to categorize a document or a section of text within a document (issues) in Browse or Table Views.
A text (.txt) or comma separated value (.csv) file containing a list of unique identifiers used to locate the records in the LAW case. The unique identifiers typically used in tag lists are the DocID or BegDoc# field. You use tag lists to help speed up the process of defining special fields for a case. A tag list allows you to save and reuse special fields between cases.
A method of counting the number of unique values that appear in a field across all records in a query, while tabulating document and data classifications.
A preformed database shell that can be used to build a database quickly. Templates contain no records, but have predefined field names, and other field attributes.
One of the three options for viewing a document in CloudNine™ LAW, the Text tab displays any text extracted from a document.
One of several popular image file formats and the most commonly used image format used in the legal profession for rendering documents.
The process of rendering scanned documents and other electronically stored information (ESI) into the TIFF image or PDF file format in LAW. The Batch Processing utility can then be used to apply Bates numbering, OCR, and other actions to the files.
A metadata field found in office documents. The document title and other metadata is extracted by LAW during the import phase of electronic discovery. After import, you can use Query Builder to query documents by words found in the Title field.
A metadata field for e-mail records that is extracted during the import phase of electronic discovery. After import, you can use LAW's Query Builder easily find all the e-mails in a document collection that were sent to a particular individual by creating a query on the To field.
The memorialized minutes of a legal proceeding.
A value in a field that is unique to that field for all records in a database. For example, in an employee database, no two records should have the same Social Security number.
The information stored in a particular database field for a specific record. For example, the Author field for a document might contain the value “Smith”.
A third-party corporate entity that specializes in processing and converting paper and electronic documents into a Concordance Desktop-ready format.
One sentence or line of text that starts a paragraph at the bottom of a document page with the remaining text printing at the top the next page due to page breaks and document setup options. Selecting print settings for widow/orphan controls indicates how many lines are printed when a paragraph or text content overlaps a page break in a document. Typically a minimum of two lines of text should be included before a page break to keep paragraph or text content within context. See also: Orphans.
One of two characters used in pattern matching. The ? character is used to mask single characters. The search WOM?N locates Women and Woman. The * character is used to mask the remainder of a word. The search MIL* locates any word where the first three letters are MIL.
An action that deletes all records from the current database, erasing all associated database files except for the stopword file. All search files are erased, adding free space to the system. Only the primary database is zapped when databases are concatenated.
A special search number that is predefined to include all records in the database, and resorts them in their original load order.